Important dates in the history of Jaipur.
1093 AD Dundhar state founded.
1300's - Nov 1727 AD Also known as Amber.
Nov 1727 AD New capital, Jaipur (Jayapura), founded.
Maharajas (title Sri Sawai Maharaja)
1778 – 1803 AD Sawai Pratap Singh
Aug 1880 – ZZZZ Sawai Madho Singh II
Sep 1922 Sawai Man Singh II
Maharajadhiraj (title Saramand-i-Rajha-i-Hindustan Raj Rajindra
Jaipur was an important, and the fourth largest Rajput state, situated in the northeast of Rajasthan, lying
between 25° 41’ and 28° 34’ N. and 74 41’ and 77° E. The area was approximately 15,600 square
miles, although the proportion of this over which the rulers had direct control
varied with the political situation in Malwa and Rajasthan. To the north are Bikanir,
The ruler of Jaipur is a Rajput
of the Kachwaha clan, who claim descent from Kusa, son of Rama, king of Ayodhya of Ramayana fame.
The early history of these people is lost in the mists of time, but they
are thought to have come to settle around Rohtas, from whence, about the end of
the third century, they moved to Narwar and the
About 1150 AD, a successor to Dulha Rai, siezed
the town of
About this time, the whole of north
Bhagwan Das adopted a son, Man Singh, who ruled Amber from 1590 to about 1594 AD. Man Singh was a conspicuously successful general and was raised to a higher rank (Commander of 7,500) than any other officer of the time. He fought, usually with distinction and valour, and always on the winning side, all over the expanding empire.
The chiefs of Amber remained loyal to their
salt, and the realm prospered, along with the Kachwaha
royal house. The next chief of note was
Jai Singh I (Mirza Raja), who fought alongside
Aurangzeb in his
Third in line after Jai Singh I was Sawai Jai Singh II (1699-1743AD). Sawai means “one and a quarter”, denoting “a cut above”, and was a title given to him by the emperor, his suzerain. He it was who founded Jaipur city (in 1728 AD), and made it his capital. He was a remarkable chief in his time, causing many written works of note to be translated into Sanskrit, was deeply interested in science and mathematics, built some very advanced observatories (the most famous being the Janta-Manta in Jaipur itself) and endowed a number of institutions for the study of astronomy (and astrology) and other branches of knowledge.
The period following Aurangzeb’s
death in 1707 AD was one of confusion, chaos and the general break down of law
and order throughout the empire. Many
local governors and petty princelings set themselves
up as independent rulers, wars between themselves and against the remaining
central authority, and the meteoric rise to power of the Marathas led to great
suffering and destruction, with realignment of lines of command and alliances
throughout the land. Through this time
of trouble, Jai Singh II steered his administration with almost unerring
judgement and statesmanship, with one very notable exception. The decisions by his predecessors to give
daughters in marriage to the Mughal emperors had led to the disfavour of the
Part of the state was lost to the Jats of Bharatpur after the death
of Jai Singh II, and in 1790 AD the chief of Macheri
(Alwar) defected from his tributary positionunder
Jaipur, declaring Alwar independent. Closely following on these troubles, the
Marathas became active in the area. In
1803 AD, Jagat Singh formed an alliance with the
British to try to curb the excesses that were destroying Rajasthan and central
The Pindaris and
Marathas were very successful in sowing the seeds of rivalry and disunity
between the Jaipur and Jodhpur Rajas by urging them both to apply to obtain the
hand of the
When things had advanced to a very sorry state, the British again took a hand, regarding the continuing and escalating Maratha and Pindari threats to the stability of all India, including their own lands and those of their allies, very seriously indeed. Negotiations with Mohan Singh, the new ruler of Jaipur, began in 1817 AD and led to the signing of a treaty vesting the security of Jaipur in British hands in return for the payment of an agreed tribute of rupees eight lakh, which was somewhat too high for such an impoverished state, and was never paid in full.
Mohan Singh died in 1819 AD and was succeeded by his posthumous son, Jai Singh III. The beginning of the long regency of this infant chief was marked by such corruption and bad rulership that in 1820 AD., a British Resident was sent to settle the situation. Violent disturbances broke out again in 1835 AD., at the time that Jai Singh III died and Maharaja Ram Singh came to the gaddi, to the extent that some British officers and many others were killed. As a result, the British government felt obliged to take sterner measures to pacify the state, and a Regency Council was set up to govern it and maintain good order. In 1846 AD, the army was reduced in size, arrears of tribute amounting to rupees 46 lakhs were written off, and the future tribute was reduced to four lakhs. Maharaja Jai Singh II died in 1880 with no heir to succeed him. An adopted relative, Maharaja Ram Singh II, was placed on the gaddi. Under him there was much improvement in education and other institutions and the basic infrastructure of the state. On his deathbed, he nominated Kaim Singh, a descendent of Maharaja Jagat Singh as his successor, and this nomination was accepted. Kaim Singh succeeded in 1880 AD under the name Madho Singh II.
Sawai Maharaja Madho Singh II began his reign in August 1880 AD. He continued the useful work of his predecessor, and encouraged the Arts, and the development of all manner of craftsmanship and skill throughout his life. Education, health care and the infrastructure were his priorities and the state and its people thrived under him. He died in 1922 AD.
His successor was Man Singh II, who was born in 1911 AD.,
and came to the throne as a minor in 1922 AD.
During his minority, a Regency Council ruled the state for him, until he
assumed full ruling powers in March 1931 AD.
He was still ruling at the time
There were no Mughal mints in the