Shah Jahan III


Posted by : Admiral Sohail Khan

Wed Aug 23, 2006 2:50 PM (ET)

Surprising that no one came up on Kora Mint. I am not well versed at all on that mint or its coins, but I can make an effort to paint the picture as to what was happening there, and around it. It is interesting but very complicated picture. I have to avoid a narrative but point to events item wise.

With Dehli in total chaos, the heir to the Mughal throne, Prince Aali Guhar (not Ali Gauhar as most historians call him) left Dehli and traveled towards to Lucknow where he was received by Shuja ud Daula in Jan 1759. He was probably invited to plan and head a later expedition to bring Bihar and Bengal under full control.

Marhattas had already taken Dehli in August 1757, Najib Rohila had marched out back to Saharanpur. Marhattas then got hold of Punjab under Ragunath Rao and Malhar Rao Holkar and took Lahore in April 1758.

On 29 Nov 1759 Emperor Alamgir II was got murdered by the wicked wazir. Shahjahan III was the new puppet.

News of murder of Alamgir II reached the prince Aali Guhar as he entered Bihar and he was Crowned as Shah Alam II on 24 December 1759 with a crimson awning spread over his head at Sahsaram. He then moved to Patna.

The wazir, the dictator Najib ud Daula Rohila, and Shuja were all scheming to oust eachother.

A delegation had been sent to Ahmad Shah Durrani to help and he took to the field and took Punjab, then Dehli and then went away. After Durranis invasion of Punjab, Marhattas raised a large force in March 1760 to recover control of northern India. Marhattas again got Dehli in July/August . In October 1760. Sadashiv Rao Bhau, who was head of Marhattas, proposed removal of Shahjahan III and to formally appoint Shah Alam as Emperor and Padishah at Dehli (Shah Alam is believed to have already done so. Now he was being proclaimed by the Marhattas also) . In the meanwhile Marhattas took Sirhind and Durrani's faujdar Abdus Samad Khan was beheaded.

Ahmad Shah Durrani then invaded India, reached north of Dehli in Dec 1760, and finally defeated the Marhattas at Panipat on 14 Jan 1761. Shuja was in Durranis camp and was offered post of Wazir. He did not take it. Najib Khan took the opportunity at Dehli, became Amir ul Umara and Vakil i Mutlaq (ALL In ALL) i.e. dictator.

In 1762 Ahmad Shah returned to Punjab put down the Sikhs, then again and again in 1764, but finally retired in 1768.

The Shuja + allies force, with Shah Alam in tow, were trying to recover eastern parts of the empire. They were defeated by the British Hector Munro at Buxar. Final defeat was at Kora in May 1765 . Shah Alam then signed the treaty of Allahbad in August 1765 and awarded the diwanee of Bengal to the British. [This was the start of formal take over of India by the British. This was also the point when Shuja ud Daula went under the protection of the British, Rohilas were beaten back, and soon Ahmad Khan Bangash also gave up resistance to the British].

From 1761 to 1772 Dehli (the Qila i Mualla) was without a resident emperor and Najib was the dictator. Najib had also retired in 1763.

!765 to 1772 the court of Shah Alam was at Allahbad for nearly 6 years. He was back in Dehli in 1772.

SUMMARY of all the above disjointed account: Kora (west of Allahbad) was not a Marhatta mint in those days. Shah Alam was the Emperor and was around.


Admiral Sohail Khan